arti ion is a water disinfection unit which using ionization technology it uses in swimmin pools instead of pool chemicals
FORA® industrial copper silver ionization generators release precise, monitored and safe concentrations of ionic copper and silver into water systems. Minimum active concentrations of copper silver ions is set at: 0.4 ppm-Cu²+ and 0.04ppm-Ag+. AquaLyse copper silver ionization technology control both the copper and silver values independently to deliver the best ionization process possible.
Positively charged copper and silver ions travel within the water system to penetrate the biofilm. These ionic particles bind themselves to negatively charged microorganisms like Legionella.
Once in contact with these microorganisms, the copper/silver ions attack in a multiphase process to disrupt the overall cell metabolism causing cellular lysis (death). Safe ionic concentration levels are maintained by monitoring the water system and thus offer additional long-term residual protection
Ionic copper/silver concentrations required for proper water ionization are
-70% (Cu+2) and -60% (Ag+) less than the current EPA safety standards for potable water.
The FORA® industrial ion generators use the latest in computer controls, software and communication protocols in order to manage and maintain safe water treatment within designated water systems.
Copper Silver Ionization - Basic Physics
The modern versions of "Industrial size" copper silver ionization systems are quite different when compared to the smaller "swimming pool" types.
Originally engineered in the late 40s by NASA for the Apollo missions, these small "hand size" ionization water treatment units used a low DC voltage applied to silver anodes as a method to purify the astronauts water supply while in flight.
1- The Ionization process of copper and silver is provoked when these metals are electronically stripped of electrons and become positively charged (Cu++, Ag+).
2- By running a DC voltage between the sacrificial copper and silver electrodes submerged in water, positively charged metallic copper and silver ions are created and released into the water.
3- Having a water flow between the electrodes carries away the metallic ions into the water system before they can reach the opposite electrode.
4- Once replaced within a water reservoir or distribution network, the positively charged copper and silver ions are attracted to negatively charged particles such as Legionella bacteria and commence the biocide process upon contact.
Note: The basic cross section Ion chamber cell illustration is a representation of older and commonly used types of ion chamber cells. It does not represent the more advanced AquaLyse® engineering designs.
What are the health effects of copper-silver ionization?
Unsufficient eveidence has been found on the possible health effects of long-term exposure to copper-silver ionization. Little is known on the general health effects of copper-silver ionization.
Legislation for copper-silver ionization
The European Union does not dictate any standards considering silver concentrations in the water. Copper, however, has a maximum value of 20 μg/L, because it corrodes waterworks. Copper concentrations should be measured in taps. (EU Drinking water directive 98/83/EC, 1998)
The WHO does not disctate any standards considering the concentration of silver as a drinking water disinfectant, because the organization found the available data to be insufficient to recommend a health standard. (WHO, Guidelines drinking water quality, 3e editie)
The United States dictate a maximum value of 1 mg/L of copper and a maximum value of 0,1 mg/L of silver. (EPA, National Secundary Drinking Water regulations, 2002)
Understanding Waterborne Pathogens
Waterborne pathogens, or disease producing microorganisms can be classified into 3 sections: bacteria, viruses and protozoa.
Bacteria - are single-celled organisms which lack well-defined nuclear membranes and other specialized functional cell parts and they reproduce by cell division or spores. Bacteria may be free-living organisms or parasites.
Bacteria and fungi are decomposers that break down the wastes and bodies of dead organisms, making their components available for reuse. Bacteria cells range from about 1 to 10 microns in length and from 0.2 to 1 micron in width. They exist almost everywhere on earth. Despite their small size, the total weight of all bacteria in the world exceeds that of all other organisms combined.
Viruses - a parasitic infectious microbe composed almost entirely of protein and protein and nucleic acids which can cause diseases in humans. Viruses can reproduce only within living cells. They are 0.004 to 0.1 microns size about 1/100 the size of bacteria. Viruses often survive many disinfectants including chlorine.
Protozoa - microscopic, usually single-celled microorganisms which live in water and are relatively larger in comparison to other microbes. Protozoa are higher on the food chain than the bacteria that they eat. Many protozoa are parasitic.
ionizing system will kill most bacteria, viruses and protozoa.
A sampling of waterborne pathogens that the copper/silver ionization will kill:
- Amoebae dysenteriae
- Bacillius subtilis
- Bacillius typhosus
- Endamoeba histolytica
- Escherichia coli (E. coli)
- Giardia lamblia
- Herpes virus
- Influenza A & B
- Legionella pneumophila
Of the list on the above page, the most common pathogens include:
Escherichia coli (E. coli) - Is the standard test for health agencies in swimming pool water treatment. E. coli is one of the members of the coliform bacteria group normally found in human and animal intestines and indicative of fecal contamination when found in water. E. coli produces large amounts of toxins that can cause severe damage to the lining of the intestine. It can survive for many weeks in lakes, reservoirs and municipal water. E. coli is transmitted by fecal contamination in water and can also be transmitted through consumption of under cooked beef, unpasteurized milk and apple cider.
Effects include gastrointestinal disorders and in some cases, kidney disorders. It has a four to seven day incubation period, so an infected person would not even know for four to seven days. Sometimes, death can result like the case in Marietta, Georgia, at a water park in the summer of 1998, where several children became ill and one died.
Salmonella - another bacteria like E. coli, there are several groups in the salmonella group that can cause illness in humans. Transmission is through food and water contaminated by feces of infected people and animals. Its effects include severe dehydration . A small number of infected persons will develop pains in joints, eye irritation and painful urination.
Cryptosporidium - a waterborne protozoan that forms cysts and causes acute gastrointestinal illness in humans. It is found in unfiltered surface water and is resistant to disinfectants such as chlorine and ultraviolet light. The disease, which begins about seven days after infection is transmitted by consumption of food, unhygienic diaper practices and contact with young farm animals.