Insecticide Imidacloprid acts by contact and ingestion as an antagonist of the post-synaptic nicotinic receptors in the insect central nervous system, blocking acetylcholine at the post-synaptic membrane and impairing normal nerve function. The target pest's feeding activity ceases within minutes to hours and death usually occurs between 1-7 days depending on mode of application. The compound has a systemic translaminar activity and is readily absorbed from the roots and distributed acropetally. This property is an important pre-requisite for soil applications such as in-furrow, granular, seed treatment and seedling-box applications in rice. Imidacloprid shows high selectivity, quick knock-down effect and long residual activity. It is effective against adult and larval stages of sucking and biting insects, soil insects and termites but has no effect on nematodes and spiders. Since the first launch of imidacloprid, with consideration of new neonicotinoid insecticides entering the market, Bayer has issued guidelines to prevent the resistance and cross-resistance development based on baseline susceptibility and cross-resistance studies. Several studies have shown no cross-resistance with other insecticides but the monitoring of critical field populations worldwide is ongoing. Trials in Bangladesh in 2000/1 (IPPC, 2004) on cotton showed that imidacloprid gave up to 70% control of aphids and jassids 75 days after sowing at an application rate of 4.5 g/kg seed. 3.5 and 2.5 g/kg seed gave around 60% and 65% control, respectively. Imidacloprid gave high levels of control of whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) in trials on greenhouse strawberries in California (IPPC, 2004).
Molecular weight:255.7; Physical form:Colourless crystals, with a weak characteristic odour. Density:1.54 (23 °C); Melting point:144 °C; Vapour pressure:4 × 10-7 mPa (20 °C); 9 × 10-7 mPa (25 °C); Henry constant:2 × 10-10 Pa m3 mol-1 (20 °C, calc.); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):logP = 0.57 (21 °C); Solubility:In water 0.61 g/l (20 °C). In dichloromethane 55, isopropanol 1.2, toluene 0.68, n-hexane <0.1 (all in g/l, 20 °C).; Stability:Stable to hydrolysis at pH 5-11.
Oral:Acute oral LD50 for male and female rats c. 450 mg/ kg. Percutaneous:Acute percutaneous LD50 (24 h) for rats >5000 mg/kg. Non-irritating to eyes and skin (rabbits). Not a skin sensitiser. Inhalation: LC50 (4 h) for rats >5323 mg/m3 dust, 69 mg/m3 air (aerosol). ADI:0.0085 mg/ kg.
Ecotoxicology: Algae: ErC50 for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata >100 mg/l.Bees:Harmful to honeybees by direct contact, but no problems expected when not sprayed into flowering crop or when used as a seed treatment.Birds:Acute oral LD50 for Japanese quail 31, bobwhite quail 152 mg/kg. Dietary LC50 (5 d) for bobwhite quail 2225, mallard ducks >5000 mg/ kg.Daphnia: LC50 (48 h) 85 mg/l.Fish: LC50 (96 h) for golden orfe 237, rainbow trout 211 mg/l.Worms: LC50 for Eisenia foetida 10.7 mg/ kg dry soil. Environmental fate: Imidacloprid is highly toxic to honeybees by direct contact and harmful to insects in general, including predatory insects such as ladybirds and lacewings. Imidacloprid is slightly toxic to juvenile and adult fish and to aquatic invertebrates. The product appears to repel birds when used as a seed treatment.
Fate in soil: Imidacloprid displays a medium absorption to soil and some degree of mobility, although leaching into deeper soil layers is not to be expected. In soil, imidacloprid is degraded continuously but not very rapidly; the product does not accumulate and is not persistent and the maximum concentrations in soil during long-term trials under unfavourable conditions reached a plateau level and declined in the absence of further applications. Imidacloprid has a half-life of 27 days in silt loam sediment under anaerobic conditions. Upon exposure to light, imidacloprid had a half-life of 39 days on sandy loam soil and the product is stable to hydrolysis at acid-neutral Ph under exclusion of light. The main routes of degradation of imidacloprid are photodegradation and microbial activity.
Fate in aquatic systems: Imidacloprid degrades readily in the presence of light and the product rapidly undergoes degradation in water via photolytic reactions or microbial activity. Upon exposure to light, imidacloprid has a half-life of one hour in water.
Signal Word:CAUTION; Hazard Class:II(Moderately hazardous)
Yantai Keda Chemical Co., Ltd.was founded in November 1999 and is situated in Zhaoyuan, the Gold Capital of China, a subsidiary of Shandong Jindu Construction Group, which is a comprehensive group company integrating real estate, construction, building materials, chemicals and rubber, with a registered capital of RMB 150 million, current fund of RMB 130 million and fixed assets of RMB 500 million. The group is also listed in “Yantai Top 100 Enterprises”. Supported by powerful capital strength, the company had a registered capital of RMB 10 million when it was initially established but now has fixed assets of RMB 12 million and current capital of RMB 20 million. The company covers an area of 35,000 m2 and has a construction area of 7,500 m2. The company focuses on talent cultivation. At present, it has 168 employees, including 35 professional engineers and technicians and 22 with intermediate or higher titles. It also regards science and technology as the motive power and establishes formal cooperative relation in “Production, Study, Research” with Shandong University. The company set up Keda Chemical Research Institute, which has 17 full-time researchers, of whom 7 have intermediate and senior titles and 5 have the bachelor and master degrees. Every year, the company invests nearly RMB 1 million in research. It also employs many senior engineers and senior agronomists from Shenyang Chemical Research Institute, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University and Shandong Pesticide Research Institute to assume its technical consultants. What’s more, the company also boasts superior production equipment, a complete quality assurance system and complete quality detection measures, which lay a good foundation for the development of pesticides. Now, the company has 2 kinds of raw pesticides, 5 forms and 18 products, and achieves an annual output value of RMB 50 million. The company is the first and largest raw profenofos and pyrimethanil manufacturer in China. The raw pesticides now are exported to India, Pakistan, Africa and other countries and regions, the quality of the products are deeply trusted by customers!
Shandong Jindu Constructive Group is a high tech enterprise, devoted to the foreign trade and technological development of chemicals, pesticides, construction materials, mineral products, tires and other business fields. Our group owns the chemical factory, tire factory, steel building material factory, door and window factory, new material factory, a trade company, etc.
We have excellent marketing teams and cooperative partners from domestic various channels, and a perfect management scheme ... View detail