Coluracetam is another nootropic in racetam chemical class. The effects of coluracetam are supposedly similar to the cousin racetam, pramiracetam. Its’ main function is to improve High Affinity Choline Uptake (HACU). HACU has some great effects on the cholinergic applications on cognitive function. This is another exciting compound indeed.
Benefits of Coluracetam
The first noted benefit of Coluracetam is in ameliorating the effects of glutamate neurotoxicity; cortical cultures were taken from fetal rats that had been treated with a substance that causes glutamate toxicity and these cultures were treated with Coluracetam for 12 to 24 hours. After this exposure period, it was found that Coluracetam (buy from hhdpharm) ameliorated the effects of the exposure.
The second noted benefit of Coluracetam was in reducing the effects of learning deficits in rats, using the Morris Water Maze as a test. Adult rats in the experimental group were treated with a cholinergic neuron-specific neurotoxin and the control group was a population of healthy rats. In the experimental group, Coluracetam greatly reduced the learning deficits associated with the administration of the neurotoxin without causing any expected side effects such as tremor, hypothermia, or salivation. It would appear from this study that Coluracetam had less of an effect on the control group (the healthy rats) than it did on the experimental group.
During the Phase 2A trials of Coluracetam by BrainCells Inc, it was noted that 80mg of Coluracetam administered three times per day was somewhat effective in treating Major Depressive Disorder co-morbid with Generalized Anxiety Disorder in those who had no positive effects from at least two other anti-depressants in the past. In the basic group (those administered Coluracetam at 80mg once per day), no significant effects were found compared to placebo; but at 80mg TID, 36% of participants saw a marked improvement in the test used to assess depression.
The final noted benefit of Coluracetam is long-term improvements in learning-impaired individuals; rats were given treated with the substance AF64A which is a cholinergic neuron-specific neurotoxin, and then given repeated doses of Coluracetam for 8-days at 3mg/kg/day. The researchers found that even 72 hours after the final administration of Coluracetam, the learning impaired rats still showed improvements in their abilities in the Morris Water Maze. During this experiment, the researchers also tested whether or not Coluracetam was found in the rats system at the time of Water Maze testing; they found that even though the rats were still exhibiting positive effects from the last administration, the concentrations of Coluracetam in their systems were negligible.
Aniracetam Aniracetam (Draganon, Sarpul, Ampamet, Memodrin, Referan) is an ampakine nootropic of the racetam chemical class purported to be considerably more potent than piracetam. It is lipid-soluble and has possible cognition-enhancing effects. It has been tested in animals extensively, Alzheimer’s patients, and temporarily impaired healthy subjects. It has shown potential as an anxiolytic in three clinical animal models. It is sold in Europe as a prescription drug, but it is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States.Aniracetam (Draganon, Sarpul, Ampamet, Memodrin, Referan) is an ampakine nootropic of the racetam chemical class purported to be considerably more potent than piracetam. It is lipid-soluble and has possible cognition-enhancing effects. It has been tested in animals extensively, Alzheimer’s patients, and temporarily impaired healthy subjects. It has shown potential as an anxiolytic in three clinical animal models. It is sold in Europe as a prescription drug, but it is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States.
Aniracetam is a member of the nootropic family that compares favorably to the standard set by Piracetam in many aspects. In fact, some people consider Aniracetam to be the best nootropic from the Racetam family when it comes to effects and value. This supplement is more powerful than Piracetam and it also works very fast. Additionally, the effects and benefits seem to last for a long time. This is a little surprising since the half life is about equal to that of Piracetam. The benefits of this supplement are strong and noticeable, with most users reporting this to be one of their favorite racetams.
Positive effects of this supplement include increases in cognitive abilities and functioning. For starters, many users report an increase in their memory along with faster recall ability. The ability to learn is also enhanced. One of the most interesting benefits of Aniracetam is a significant improvement verbal and linguistic ability. Additionally, many users indicate that they experience improved mental energy, clarity, and a stronger ability to concentrate and focus. This makes this nootropic one of the best to take if you need help or support with a presentation, interview, or writing/speaking based task or assignment.
The supplement also works as an anxiolytic, meaning that it can possibly help to reduce the levels of anxiety you may be experiencing. Researchers have also noticed the potential for this supplement to help with the symptoms and conditions related to depression and even degenerative cognitive decline such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Scientists think that the primary reason for these effects is due to Aniracetam acting upon and modulating serotonin and dopamine receptors within the brain. These are thought to be the main locations which influence mood and anxiety issues.
Piracetam Piracetam is a cognitive enhancer and memory enhancing supplement. Many people across the world use the nootropic, piracetam, to effectively retain knowledge andimprove memory. Piracetam is utilized by both younger and older healthy individuals. From recent and past clinical studies and research, Piracetam has been determined to support memory and aid individuals experiencing memory loss and difficulties in the ability to retain knowledge. Piracetam may enhance, elevate, and improve cognitive functions and abilities linked and associated to the central nervous system, memory development and memory processes.
Pramiracetam Pramiracetam is a lipid-soluble nootropic of the Racetam chemical family, and has a relatively similar chemical structure compared to its cousin Aniracetam. However, this nootropic is much stronger than Aniracetam. Pramiracetam has the capabilities of increasing the long term memory of individuals, allowing obtained information and knowledge to be recalled more easily. Considering that the high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) is increased implies an increase in the synthesis and release of Acetylcholine. The information shows how this smart drug increases both the Hippocampal Acetylcholine activity and the learning and memory encoding process.
Sunifiram Sunifiram is a research ampakine that is becoming very popular amongst researchers. As an ampakine, it works to improve the ability of the AMPA glutamate receptors. Sunifiram works by stimulating the AMPA receptor currents therefore improving the glutamate signal. This is believed to be the main method of action however there are several other applications of this compound.
Unifiram Unifiram is the cousin of sunifiram. It is very similar in structure and the effects are supposedly similar. Unifiram is thought to be a slightly more potent compound than sunifiram. It is becoming very popular amongst nootropics researchers worldwide.
IDRA-21 This is another ampakine nootropic and it belongs to the benzothiadiazine family. IDRA-21 is less researched than sunifiram and unifiram. Preliminary animal studies have shown positive results on reducing drug induced defects. The compound does not appear to show neurotoxicity when administered alone. IDRA-21 is a highly sought after compound for avid nootropic researchers.
PRL-8-53 PRL-8-53 is of great interest to nootropic researchers. It has had some human studies which showed positive responses in cognitive function. One study showed that the compound could help retrieve lost memories (hypermnesia). Research on PRL-8-53 in medical applications has come to a standstill however many independent nootropic researchers have got it on their crosshairs.
The method of action of PRL-8-53 is not fully understood. It does possess cholinergic properties. It is also thought that PRL-8-53 may potentiate dopamine functions while inhibiting serotonin. Many aspect of this compound are still a mystery.
Amfonelic acid Amfonelic acid is a sought after nootropic research chemical. It is dopamine reuptake inhibitor. The dopaminergic activity of this chemical is thought to be 50 times that of methylp. This compound has a very long half-life and extreme power as a dopaminergic compound. Unlike many other DRI’s amfonelic acid does not appear to have any effects on the norepinephrine system. Research suggests that amfonelic acid may be highly addictive if used in subsequent high dosages.
Tianeptine Tianeptine is a research nootropic and one of the only in its class. It acts as a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Enhancer (SSRE). Tianeptine is the only known in the class and has the opposite effects of SSRI’s. Administration of an SSRI and tianeptine are known to cause cancelling effects. Regardless, tianeptine is thought to carry anxiolytic, anti-depressive and some analgesic properties as well as being a nootropic. Tianeptine may enhance dopamine release. It may also have effects on AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors.
Idebenone (pronounced eyedebeh known) is a synthetic analog of one of life’s most essential biochemicals, coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10). Co Q10 is an important antioxidant component of the lipid (fatty) membranes that surround all cells, as well as the lipid membranes surrounding the various organelles (“little organs”), such as mitochondria and microsomes, inside cells.
Co Q10 is also an important member of the “Electron Transport Chain” within mitochondria, which are the “power plants” of the cell. Most of the oxygen we breathe is used inside the electron transport chain to produce much of the ATP bioenergy that powers virtually every activity of our cells and bodies.
Without Co Q10, or a good substitute, human life quickly ends, and Idebenone is a “better Co Q10″ that has been extensively researched the past 15 years.