interlay paper or plastic between two sheets,seaworthy wooden crates,iron belt for consolidation
qingdao,tianjin,shenzhen Main Port of China
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Float Process and Key to Make Perfect Float Glass
Today, almost all flat glass is made by means of the float process in plants which operate continuously 24 hours a day, 365 days a year for uninterrupted periods of over 15 years.
Stage 1: Melting and refining
Sand, limestone, soda ash, dolomite, iron oxide and salt cake are mixed together with cullet in the batch plant.
The raw materials are then charged into a large furnace to be melted at 1600°C. They combine in a process of physical transformation to form molten glass.
Stage 2: Float bath
A continuous ribbon of molten glass is fed out of the melting furnace onto the surface of an enclosed bath of molten tin at 1100°C. The molten glass literally floats on top of the tin, and as it flows along the surface of the tin bath away from the delivery canal, it forms a ribbon of uniform thickness. Thickness is controlled by the speed at which solidifying glass ribbon is drawn off from the bath.
Stage 3: Coating
Coatings that make profound changes in optical properties can be applied by advanced high temperature technology to the cooling ribbon of glass.
On-line chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of coatings is the most significant advance in the float process since it was invented. CVD can be used to lay down a variety of coatings, less than a micron thick, to reflect visible and infrared wavelengths, for instance. Multiple coatings can be deposited in the few seconds available as the glass ribbon flows beneath the coaters. Further development of the CVD process may well replace changes in composition as the principal way of varying the optical properties of float glass.
Stage 4: Annealing
The glass is then lifted from the tin bath onto rollers to the annealing lehr to be cooled down. At this stage the internal stresses are released ensuring perfect flatness and solidity.
Stage 5: Inspection
The float process is renowned for making perfectly flat, flaw-free glass. But to ensure the highest quality, inspection takes place at every stage.
Stage 6: Cutting to order
Once cooled down and solidified the glass goes to the cutting area where it is cut in to a large sheet of 'jumbo size' (6×3.21 meters) or 'cut-size' which are specific to customer orders, before being stacked for transportation.
The float process produces glass sheets with a uniform thickness and perfectly smooth surfaces that need no further grinding or polishing.
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