Urolithin A is not known to be found in any food source. Its bioavailability mostly depends on individualmicrobiotacomposition, as only some bacteria are able to convert ellagitannins into urolithins.
Urolithins are microflora human metabolites of dietary ellagic acid derivatives such as ellagitannins. They are produced in the human gut, and found in the urine in the form of urolithin B glucuronide after absorption of ellagitannins-containing food such as pomegranate, strawberries, red raspberries, walnuts or oak-aged red wine.
During intestinal metabolism by bacteria, ellagitannins and punicalagins are converted to urolithins, which have unknown biological activity in vivo in humans. Urolithins metabolites of pomegranate juice ellagitannins localize specifically in the prostate gland, colon, and intestinal tissues of mice.
Ellagitannins exhibit low bioavailability and are transformed in the gut to ellagic acid and its microbiota metabolites. Urolithins are found in plasma mostly as glucuronides at low concentrations.
Urolithins production is dependent on the gut microbiome enterotype. Individuals producing urolithins show a much higher abundance of the Clostridium leptum group of Firmicutes phylum than Bacteroides or Prevotella.
Effect of urolithin A on cell proliferation, metastasis, and MMP‐9 activity. SW620 cells were treated with 0 (a) 0.15 (b) 1.5 (c) or 15 (d) µM urolithin A for 24 h (A) and cell proliferation was measured using MTT assay (B). Photographs (×100 magnification) are representative of three independent experiments. Cell monolayers were wounded using 200 µL pipette tips, treated with 0 (a) 0.05 (b) µM urolithin A for 48 h and photographs were taken (×100 magnification) to measure cell migration (C). After treatment with 0 (a) 0.05 (b) µM urolithin A for 48 h, cells were seeded above transwell chamber membranes. After 4 h, membrane bottoms were stained with crystal violet and photographs were taken (×200 magnification) to assess cell invasion (D). MMP‐9 activity was determined by MMP assay in cells treated with 0.05 µM urolithin A for 48 h (E) *P < 0.05 represents significant difference from the control group
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